What is the SGPT Test – Know the Purpose, Procedure, and Results

We all know how vital the liver is to our body. From removing wastes to regulating blood sugar levels, our liver does everything. The liver is responsible for producing the most chemical levels in the blood. The liver not only balances but also creates nutrients, processes drugs, all for helping our body to perform easier and healthier. 

Out of many functions played by the liver, enzyme activation is one of its most important roles. Liver enzymes are known for speeding up all the chemical reactions that take place in our bodies. By chemical reactions, it is meant – producing bile, healthy clotting of blood, processing food and toxins, and most importantly fighting any kind of infections and protecting the body. 

But too much of these enzymes is not good news either. The levels of these various enzymes must be checked and kept under control. Elevated enzyme levels in your body may mean something is wrong with the liver’s functioning. 

What is the SGPT test?

SGPT means Serum Glutamic Pyruvic Transaminase. The SGPT test is done to measure the amount of Glutamic Pyruvic Transaminase in our blood. GPT is an enzyme that is present in our heart cells and liver. There is a higher tendency of GPT flow in the body if there is liver or heart damage. 

The SGPT test is done to keep a check on livers and heart health. It helps us to find out the following –

  • Whether our liver is healthy or damaged
  • How the liver is functioning 
  • The present SGPT level in your body
  • Any liver or SGPT related diseases in your body

Why is the SGPT Test Important for Us?

The normal SGPT level in a human body is 7 to 56 units per liter of blood serum. A high level of SGPT can mean liver or heart damage, whereas a low level mostly means healthy liver, a lower-than-normal level is concerning.

Sometimes, several health conditions like acute viral hepatitis A & B, hepatitis C, celiac disease, diabetes, heart attack, obesity, and gallbladder inflammation can cause a high level of SGPT in a body. That is why the SGPT test is so important, to save yourself from sudden damage.

Some other causes behind high SGPT level –

  • Drinking alcohol
  • Liver disease
  • Muscle injury
  • Damage of red blood cells
  • Heatstroke
  • Too much intake of vitamin A
  • Blockage of bile ducts 
  • Kidney damage 
  • Mononucleosis

Few symptoms indicating you have a higher SGPT level in the body – 

  • Vomiting and nausea
  • Fatigue
  • Weakness
  • Swelling 
  • Breathing issues
  • Excessive bleeding
  • Jaundice
  • Dark urine
  • Light-colored stool
  • Itching 
  • Abdominal pain
  • Swollen abdomen
  • Diarrhea 

Purpose, and Procedure of SGPT Test –

Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) test, also known as SGPT blood test, is performed to determine the SGPT or ALT levels in the blood. For the test, a blood sample is taken from you and tested in the laboratory to count the level. 

The SGPT blood test is completely risk-free, it only hurts the spot from where the needle has penetrated. 

The test is not only done by those who want to know the SGPT level but also those who are recommended by the doctors for observing other diseases. Doctors often ask patients to run the SGPT test who has

  • A medical history of hepatitis
  • Family members with the gene of liver damage tendencies
  • Patients who have been on liver-damaging medicines for a long time
  • Alcohol addiction
  • Serious diabetes 
  • Obesity 

One must consult and ask everything from their doctor before undertaking this test. A doctor can help you with the whole procedure and how long does one has to fast before the SGPT blood test. To manage things, something as simple as filtered water can also be of help, according to studies.

What Does the SGPT Test’s Result Mean?

SGPT blood test means examining the blood levels of the enzyme Glutamic Pyruvic Transaminase which is released by the liver itself. 

1. Normal Results –

Your SGPT test result will only be considered normal or safe when your blood will show 7 to 55 units of the enzyme per liter, especially for an average adult. Though everyone’s measure varies from each other, they are relatively close and similar. A normal level of SGPT means your liver is performing perfectly and has no sign of damage.

2. Abnormal Results –

By abnormal result, it is meant that a person has a relatively higher level of Glutamic Pyruvic Transaminase enzyme in their body, which is not a good sign. Sign of high levels of SGPT means your liver has been hurting or damaged. So, if your SGPT test comes higher than the normal level you need to consult doctors and there are high chances that you have one or two of the following diseases –

  • Toxin damage to the liver
  • Infections in liver
  • Liver cirrhosis 
  • Hepatitis
  • Liver damage due to alcohol
  • Medications that took a toll on your liver health
  • Liver cancer
  • Muscle damage
  • Digestion issue
  • Heart damage
  • Bile duct obstruction

It is completely normal to have a high level of Glutamic Pyruvic Transaminase enzyme in your SGPT test if you are pregnant, it is not alarming or unusual. 

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